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Term Definition

Commodity Glossary - Don't be confused about the world of commodities. Here we list common terms and definitions, together with company information, on the world of commodities - from Commodities Now.


Abatement - Reduction in the quantity or intensity of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

Abuja Securities and Commodities Exchange

Abuja Securities and Commodities Exchange - (ASCE) was originally incorporated as a Stock Exchange on June 17, 1998.It commenced electronic trading in securities in May 2001 and was converted to a commodity Exchange on August 8, 2001 and brought under the supervision of the Federal Ministry of Commerce. The Exchange will be of immense benefits to farmers, agro-commodity processors and merchants, as it will serve as a veritable platform for them to mitigate the inherent risks in agricultural production and marketing. The enlarged market for agricultural produce, which the ASCE will engender, shall promote commercial farming and the growth of the agricultural sector.


Alternating current (AC) - An electric current that reverses its direction at regularly recurring intervals

Accreditation Panel

Accreditation Panel - Entity that prepares the decision-making of the CDM Executive Board in accordance with the procedure for accrediting operational entities.

Accredited Independent Entity (AIE)

Accredited Independent Entities (AIEs) are independent auditors that assess whether a potential project meets all the eligibility requirements of the JI (determination) and whether the project has achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions (verification).


ACER – Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER): The Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators was established by Regulation (EC) No 713/2009 of 13 July 2009. ACER is intended to play a key role in the liberalisation of the Community electricity and natural gas markets. ACER will help to remove the technical obstacles to cross-border energy trade, will coordinate activities of national energy regulators and will help solving possible conflicts between them.


ACG - Asia Carbon was founded in February 2003 and positions itself as an organization that provides an integrated and seamless approach to the business of energy, environment and sustainable development, with a specific focus on the flexible market mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol

Acid Rain

Acid Rain - Also called acid precipitation or acid deposition, acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids formed primarily by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. It can be wet precipitation (rain, snow, or fog) or dry precipitation (absorbed gaseous and particulate matter, aerosol particles or dust). Acid rain has a pH below 5.6. Normal rain has a pH of about 5.6, which is slightly acidic. The term pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and ranges from 0 to 14. A pH measurement of 7 is regarded as neutral. Measurements below 7 indicate increased acidity, while those above indicate increased alkalinity.


ACX - The aim of the ACX (Australian Climate Exchange) is to provide a trusted marketplace where business can buy emissions commodities with confidence in the quality and origin of the products being sold. Since Australia's recent ratification of the Kyoto Protocol ACX's focus has been on the international trading opportunities that this may open up and the mechanics of listing, trading and indeed transacting Clean Development Mechanism CERs & VERs on its Australian exchange.

Adaptation Fund

Adaptation Fund - Fund established in January 2002 (COP7, Marrakech) to help developing countries meet the cost of adaptation to climate change. The Fund is financed mainly with a share of proceeds (SOP) from clean development mechanism (CDM) project activities, see Adaptation Levy. At COP-14 in Poznan, the Parties agreed that the GEF (Global Environment Facility) acts as AF Secretariat and the World Bank as ”interim” trustee in charge of CER sales. The Poznan decision gives the Adaptation Fund Board permanent legal basis as an independent legal body, enabling it to enter into contracts and directly take project proposals, without having to go through implementing agencies, and to start disbursing the funds. The decision means that adaptation money can begin to flow at some point in 2009. The Fund is financed with 2% of the Certified Emission Reduction (CERs) issued for projects of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and with funds from other sources. (Source:

Adaptation Levy

Adaptation Levy - Levy to assist least developed countries (LDCs) through the Adaptation Fund to adapt to climate change. The levy, 2% of the certified emission reductions from the project, is imposed on all CDM projects except those implemented in LDCs. Additionality principle
The principle that a project should only be able to earn credits if the GHG emission reductions produced by the project are additional to what would have happened in the absence of the carbon credit component.


Additionality A project activity is additional if anthropogenic GHG emissions are lower than those that would have occurred in the absence of the project activity.

Additionality tool

Additionality Tool - Guidelines elaborated by the CDM Executive Board to help assess whether a project is additional or not

Adjustment bid

Adjustment Bid - A bid auction conducted by the independent system operator or power exchange to redirect supply or demand of electricity when congestion is anticipated


ADM - For more than a century, the people of Archer Daniels Midland Company have transformed crops into products that serve vital needs. Today, 30,000 ADM employees around the globe convert oilseeds, corn, wheat and cocoa into products for food, animal feed, industrial and energy uses. With more than 270 processing plants, 420 crop procurement facilities, and the world’s premier crop transportation network, ADM helps connect the harvest to the home in more than 160 countries.


AFET (Agricultural Futures Exchange of Thailand) - The Agricultural Futures Exchange of Thailand (AFET) is an independent juristic person established under the provisions of the Act to run the exclusive agricultural futures exchange in Thailand regulated by Agricultural Futures Trading Commission.


Afforestation - Planting of new forests on lands that have not been recently forested.


Alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) - A vehicle designed to operate on an alternative fuel (e.g., compressed natural gas, methane blend, electricity). The vehicle could be either a dedicated vehicle designed to operate exclusively on alternative fuel or a nondedicated vehicle designed to operate on alternative fuel and/or a traditional fuel


Aggregator - Any marketer, broker, public agency, city, county, or special district that combines the loads of multiple end-use customers in negotiating the purchase of electricity, the transmission of electricity, and other related services for these customers

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